environmental packages

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Environmental Packages
Flare Gas Recovery

NORDEN will design, manufacture and install a bespoke system that absolutely fits our customers’ needs and gas characteristics. We can supply either a compressor (single or multi-stage sliding vane, or single stage liquid ring technologies) or a plug and play skidded Flare Gas Recovery Unit or even Eductor, one stage or multi stage type. Our Flare Gas Recovery systems are designed to handle very harsh gases on the long run. Our maintenance costs are amongst the lowest in the whole market thanks to our capacity to adapt the material to the gas characteristics. We are also able to estimate when / how maintenance has to be done months in advance.   

NORDEN designs advanced flare gas recovery systems that enable facilities requiring flare systems to achieve the benefits of near-zero flaring. Flare gas recovery can result in near 100 percent reduction of normal flaring, limiting flare operation to emergency releases and scheduled maintenance. Captured flare gas can then be reused as valuable fuel or feedstock. Near-zero flaring reduces costly emissions, giving you environmental control with an immediate return on investment.

NORDEN Solutions:

  • System design which is optimized to reduce NOx, SOx, CO and CO2 emissions, manufacturing and in-field start-up assistance
  • Engineering studies and Engineering packages
    We offer engineering studies and packages that analyze your specific flare system and evaluate the economic feasibility of installing a flare gas recovery system at your facility.
  • Eductor Selection, all Eductor technologies which is best suited for your specific application will be selected.
  • Compressor selection, the best suitable type of compressor will be selected for your specific application.
  • We offer on-site start-up and training, worldwide parts and service support and technical expertise to keep you system operating at peak performance.

 

 

Denox Process

The most effective process to date for flue gas NOx removal in power plants is known as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). It operates at temperatures of between 300 °C and 400°C on the reaction principle that is  summarized by the following equations: 

Before the flue gas enters the reactor, ammonia is added in the form of a NH3 / air mixture, which promotes the reduction of nitrogen oxides when the gas comes into contact with the catalyst.
The DENOX unit can be installed downstream of the boiler between the economizer (feed water pre-heater) and the combustion air preheater and is known as the “high-dust” configuration.
When the unit is located downstream of the electrostatic precipitator this result is the so-called “low-dust” configuration. In this configuration the DENOX unit may be also installed downstream of the desulphurization system. This result is the so-called “tail-end” configuration.

THE DESIGN

Taking into account the Customer specifications and the amount of space available in each case, the size of individual reactors is optimized with the aid of pilot plant tests and with computational fluid dynamic models. The criteria of particular importance include the thorough mixture of NH3 and NOx molecules in the reactor hood and a constant gas flow in the vertical part of the reactor.
The key design parameter in a reactor of this type is the so-called space velocity (is normally between 1000 and 3000 per hour whereas for oil – and gas). This is a measure of the residence time of the flue gas mixture within the catalyst volume and result in a smaller quantity of catalyst being required for the NOx reduction.
Calculation of the space velocity takes into account the following factors:

  • Efficiency of the DENOX reaction
  • Temperature
  • Allowable ammonia slip
  • Flue gas analysis
  • Dust analysis
Flue Gas Desulphurization

NORDEN FGD (Flue Gas Desulphurization) plants are based on the wet limestone technology with production of gypsum, which is readily usable by manufacturers of gypsum based products.

The limestone wet process has become the most popular process for flue gas desulphurization; NORDEN has the experience and the know-how for the design and the construction of complete FGD plant, with main characteristics as follow: 1- High removal efficiency (> 96%), 2-Limestone consumption closely approximating stoichiometric requirements, 3- Reduced space requirements due to compact construction, 4- Scrubbing tower complete with integral absorption, oxidation, crystallizing and mist separation stages, 5- Low residual moisture in effluent gas by optimal location of the demister, 6- High gypsum purity in the final product as a result of high oxidation efficiency

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Flue gas ducts connect flue gas system to absorber and from absorber to stack. After the flue gas cleaning a reheating system for clean gases is required before they enter the stack.

The absorber consists of a vertical cylindrical vessel, with a flue gas inlet and outlet opening. The part of the absorber between the gas inlet and gas outlet (the gas section) may be subdivided in "the spray section" and in "the mist eliminator section". The part of the absorber below the gas inlet contains the absorber slurry (the sump). In the spray section, the flue gas will be in contact with a fine spray of limestone slurry droplets, as produced by the slurry spray banks, equipped with spray nozzles.

The SO2 and other acid gases are absorbed to a large extend in the slurry droplets and react with the limestone present in the slurry to form gypsum. In order to obtain nearly 100% oxidation of sulphite to sulphate, the absorber is provided with an oxidation air injection system for the injection of a certain flow of oxidation air, supplied from a compressor system.

The bleed system consists essentially of an absorber bleed pump and a gypsum cyclone battery, supplied with absorber slurry by the absorber bleed pump.

The underflow of the cyclones flows to the mechanical dewatering that produces dry commercial gypsum with a maximum water content of 10%.

Incinerators

Several kinds of incinerators are designed and manufactured by NORDEN as follows:

  • STATIC INCINERATORS for the incineration of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes
  • ROTARY INCINERATORS for the incineration of solid waste
  • MULTIPLE HEARTH INCINERATORS for the incineration of sludge

STATIC INCINERATORS:

Static incinerators for gaseous wastes consist usually of a vertical cylindrical chamber internally lined by refractory material with alumina content which varies with the type of waste to be burnt. and its main applications are for Gas and liquid waste of oil and petrochemical industries, Polluted gas and liquid streams and Solvents and paintings. The static incinerator for solid wastes is essentially used for the burning of small quantities of wastes (max 200 kg/h) particularly in the field of hospital wastes.The system is composed by three chambers:

  • Primary chamber
  • Secondary chamber with the grate
  • Post-combustion chamber

ROTARY INCINERATORS FOR SOLID WASTE (up to 80 t/d):

The rotary incinerator suitable for Hazardous and non-hazardous industrial solid wastes and Hospital wastes, consists principally of a revolving cylinder inside lined with refractory materials slightly inclined to the horizontal and supported by two riding rings resting on two trunnion rolls. In function of the type of waste to be burnt, in a wide range of temperature (from approx 800 °C to 1100 °C). The volatile products (flue gases with gaseous unburnt organic compounds and particulates) resulting from the thermal process occurring in the rotary chamber, are drawn into the Post-Combustion Chamber for a further oxidation. Flue gas treatment system: consists of: flue gas cooling system, pollutant removal system and ash removal.

MULTIPLE HEARTH INCINERATORS- consists of a vertical cylindrical shell lined with refractory which encloses a series of horizontal circular hearths. These type of incinerators are good for  Incineration of chemical and biological sludge,  Incineration of refinery sludge, Activated carbon regeneration and Foundry sands regeneration.

Waste Water Treatment - CPI Units

CPI (Corrugated plate interceptor) or TPI (Tilted plate interceptor) separators are predominantly used in separation of free oil from effluent water or suspended solids for oily water treatment in an OWS (oily Water System).

NORDEN CPI Units are designed to remove free oil and suspended solids from water as a primary stage of water treatment and utilize plate packs as the main separation device. The plate packs are designed with specific spacing and alignment to allow solids to settle and fall to the bottom while simultaneously allowing oil drops to rise and coalesce, thereby reducing the oil and solids loading from the downstream water treatment train and smoothing out flow slugging.

The basic principle of difference in gravity between the phases (liquid – liquid or solid – liquid) is employed in an OWS in separation of the two phases. This phenomenon is defined as “Gravity Separation”.

The effectiveness of this technique is subjected to various factors such as difference in the density, viscosity, factors of the medium, temperature, turbulence, and also the nature of impurity etc.

In some cases chemical coagulation and flocculation is needed for removal of the impurity by making them heavier or lighter.

Waste Water Treatment - Deoiling Hydrocyclones

Hydrocyclone based process systems are the most cost-effective solution for produced water treatment clean up. Located directly downstream on the water outlet of the production separator and upstream of the water level control valve, these systems operate in a proportional “pressure ratio” control manner.

NORDEN’s proprietary Deoiling Hydrocyclones are highly efficient in recovering oil from produced water and other process streams. Deoiling hydrocyclones have established themselves as standard oil recovery equipment.

We offer Deoiling Hydrocyclones in the following range of materials so you can be sure that they are suitable for your application no matter how severe the service:

  • Duplex stainless steel
  • Super Duplex stainless steel
  • tungsten carbide 
Waste Water Treatment - Gas Flotation

Induced Gas Flotation (IGF) is a water treatment process that clarifies wastewaters (or other waters) by the removal of suspended matter such as oil or solids. The removal is achieved by injecting gas bubbles into the water or wastewater in a flotation tank. The small bubbles adhere to the suspended matter causing the suspended matter to float to the surface of the water where it may then be removed by a skimming device.

Induced Gas Flotation is very widely used in treating the industrial wastewater effluents from oil refineries, petrochemical and chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and similar industrial facilities. A very similar process known as dissolved air flotation is also used for wastewater treatment. Froth flotation is commonly used in the processing of mineral ores.

The feed water to the IGF float tank is often (but not always) dosed with a coagulant (such as ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate) to flocculate the suspended matter.

Some IGF unit designs utilize parallel plate packing material to provide more separation surface and therefore to enhance the separation efficiency of the unit.

NORDEN specialize in the design & build of turnkey water treatment process plant; therefore non-standard equipment and specifications can be easily incorporated into full treatment packages. This ensures our clients requirements are met in the most efficient manner either by incorporating standard plant or a bespoke design.

 

 

Waste Water Treatment - Clarification

Clarification occurs in a large basin where water is again allowed to flow very slowly. Sludge, a residue of solids and water, accumulates at the basin's bottom and is pumped or scraped out for eventual disposal. Clarification is also sometimes called sedimentation.

Steps of Clarification

  • Coagulation. Coagulation can be accomplished through the addition of inorganic salts of aluminum or iron. These inorganic salts neutralize the charge on the particles causing raw water turbidity, and also hydrolyze to form insoluble precipitates, which entrap particles. Coagulation can also be effected by the addition of water-soluble organic polymers with numerous ionized sites for particle charge neutralization. 
  • Flocculation. Flocculation, the agglomeration of destabilized particles into large particles, can be enhanced by the addition of high-molecular-weight, water-soluble organic polymers. These polymers increase floc size by charged site binding and by molecular bridging.

Horizontal Flow Clarifiers, Originally, conventional clarification units consisted of large, rectangular, concrete basins divided into two or three sections. Each stage of the clarification process occurred in a single section of the basin. Water movement was horizontal with plug flow through these systems.

Upflow Clarifiers, Compact and relatively economical, upflow clarifiers provide coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation in a single (usually circular) steel or concrete tank.

In-Line Clarification is the process of removing raw water turbidity through the addition of coagulant just prior to filtration.

Waste Water Treatment - Filtration

NORDEN will design, manufacture and install filters for waste water treatment systems; Filtration is used in addition to regular coagulation and sedimentation for removal of solids from surface water or wastewater. This prepares the water for use as potable, boiler, or cooling make-up. Wastewater filtration helps users meet more stringent effluent discharge permit requirements. below are major methods we use:

MIXED MEDIA FILTER BEDS apply to a type of filter bed which is graded by size and density.

GRAVITY FILTERS are open vessels that depend on system gravity head for operation. The essential components of a gravity filter include The filter shell, The support bed, An underdrain system, Wash water troughs and Control devices that maximize filter operation efficiency. 

PRESSURE FILTERS are typically used with hot process softeners to permit high-temperature operation and to prevent heat loss. The use of pressure filters eliminates the need for repumping of filtered water. Pressure filters are similar to gravity filters in that they include filter media, supporting bed, underdrain system, and control device; however, the filter shell has no wash water troughs.

PRECOAT FILTRATION is used to remove very small particulate matter, oil particles, and even bacteria from water. This method is practical only for relatively small quantities of water which contain low concentrations of contaminants.

Waste Water Treatment - Softening

Softening:

When water contains a significant amount of calcium and magnesium, it is called hard water. Hard water is known to clog pipes and to complicate soap and detergent dissolving in water.
NORDEN Water softening technology is a technique that serves the removal of the ions that cause the water to be hard, in most cases calcium and magnesium ions. Iron ions may also be removed during softening.

 Water softeners are specific ion exchangers that are designed to remove ions, which are positively charged.
Softeners mainly remove calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions.

Softeners have different types such as automatic, semi-automatic, or manual.

A water softener typically consists of two tanks, a larger one into which rock or pellet salt is added and a smaller tank containing the ion exchange resin through which the hard water passes.

After water softening bed regeneration is initiated, the first step is to backwash the resin bed. Then brine is slowly deducted from the salt tank at a set flowrate for a specific time.

Given proper consideration of raw water quality and ultimate end use of the treated water, the application of precipitation processes has few limitations. However, operational difficulties may be encountered unless the following factors are controlled: Temperature, Hydraulics, Chemical Control.

 

Contact Us

  • 385, River Oaks PKWY, APT 2093, San Jose , CA, USA
  • +1 713 364 6260
  • info@nordensolutions.com